Understanding different interactions of coffee, tobacco and opium culture in the lands of ottoman empire in the light of the pipes obtained in excavations
This M.A. thesis mainly focuses on tobacco introduced to the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century and along with tobacco, it questions how pipe making shaped the everyday life in the Empire both socially and culturally. This inventory, better known as Tophane pipe making, came out in a large part of the Ottoman Empire in different ways according to its period, region and production style. In a short span of time, tobacco spread to a large part of the empire, was first consumed as a remedy and soon after as a stimulating substance. The variety in the usage of opium, the consumption of wine despite its being banned, and especially the excessive consumption of coffee by almost everyone paved the way for tobacco. Finally, the fact that coffeehouses were distinguished as communal areas for the consumption of all those substances led the consumption of stimulating substances to a far different dimension. When it comes to tobacco consumption, the first thing that comes to mind is chibouk. The biggest differences of chibouk from the western pipe are the specific production style of its flue and the bowl of pipe in which tobacco is placed. Just as tobacco did, the production of pipe spread quickly over the territory of the empire, which led the construction of workshops dealing specifically with pipe making. Several pipes were produced by several artisans using different materials to make them. Pipes found during excavations which were held in different territories of the empire became more of an issue since that Istanbul based elite pipe art finally came out of the border fortresses. And the main concern of the thesis comes into play at this stage, trying to reveal how this cultural inventory has formed an interaction between different countries.